The kidneys remove waste and fluids from the blood to make urine, and sometimes when you have too much waste and too little fluid in your blood, these waste materials can build up and stick to the kidneys. These groups of waste are called kidney stones.

A kidney stone is a solid material that forms in the kidney from substances in the urine. It can be as small as a grain of sand or as big as a pearl. Most kidney stones leave the body without the help of a doctor. But sometimes a stone won’t go away and can get stuck in the urinary tract, blocking the flow of urine and causing great pain.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones:

Usually, a kidney stone doesn’t cause symptoms until it gets into your kidney or your ureters, the tubes that connect your kidneys and bladder. If it gets stuck in the ureters, it can block the flow of urine and clog the kidney. Swelling and the ureter result in a spasm that can be very painful. At this point, the following signs and symptoms may occur:

  • Severe and stabbing pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity

Other signs and symptoms may include: pink, red, or brown urine, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, urge to urinate, more often than usual or in small amounts, nausea and vomiting, fever and chills if infected.

The pain caused by a kidney stone may change, move to a different location, or increase in intensity as the stone moves through the urinary tract.

Causes of Kidney Stone:

Kidney stones often don’t have a single, defined cause, although several factors can increase your risk. Kidney stones form when the urine contains more crystallizing substances, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, than the fluid in the urine can dilute. Over time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones include:

Family or personal history: If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you are also more likely to develop stones. If you have ever had one or more kidney stones, you are at increased risk of developing another one.

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